Print Repeated Characters Of String

Right String: Extract characters from the end of a string. In this program we will not use another string to copy string after removing the characters; we can say this program is for removing consecutive characters from the string without using another string. 4 String slices A segment of a string is called a slice. Because of variable-length encodings, the number of characters in a string (given by length(s)) is not always the same as the last index. This program allows the user to enter a string (or character array), and a character value. multiplier. Go to the editor Click me to see the sample solution. Repeating a std::string n times. A string is actually one-dimensional array of characters in C language. I just described a variety of kinds of strings. NET Forums on Bytes. Run a loop from start to end character of the given string str. Given a string, Write a program to remove duplcate characters from the string. In this article, we will discuss, different ways to print first non repeated character from string in C# 1: Complexity: O(n^2). Write a program that reads in a binary string from the command line and applies the following (00, 1101) tag-system: if the first bit is 0, delete the first three bits and append 00; if the first bit is 1, delete the first three bits and append 1101. In this article, we will discuss how to remove duplicate characters from string. Placing a number first causes the parser to try an dconvert the string into a number first. Any help would be appreciated. Blank Slice Indexes If you leave out the first index of a slice, Python will automatically think you want to specify index 0 for the first index. Go to the editor Click me to see the sample solution. 3 character word, what it does is. Find the last non repeating character in a given string. Algorithm:. To use it, just provide the string to repeat and a count as its two parameters, like this: let str = String(repeating: "a", count: 5) That will set str to "aaaaa". C Program To Find The Number Of Occurrences Of a Character In a String:. (They're usually optimized for binary comparison operations over a string. Assign the string field that is to be repeated to this variable, and if you want, add a Chr(13), which is the ASCII character for carriage return. Given a string, find its first non-repeating character Given a string, find the first non-repeating character in it. Similarly, for assignment statements, the last character on a continued line is an operator. Learning to Program with Python. Count occurrences of a single or multiple characters in string and find their index positions Java : How to update the value of an existing key in HashMap | put() vs replace() How to remove Substrings from a String in C++. Because the contents of single-quoted strings are interpreted literally, you cannot use the backtick character to force a literal character interpretation in a single-quoted string. Character arrays are a special type of array that uses a “\0” character at the end. Basic PowerShell. Time complexity of program to print all permutations of a string is O(n*n!). Python repeated character in string. Even a single character is considered a string. Start traversing from left. Write a program to find two lines with max characters in descending order. To deal with these problems, please follow the below methods step by step. The body of the function maps an anonymous 'print' function over the arguments,. Here is the list of meta-characters, and a quick description of the special meaning. This page contains simple Java example program for First Repeated Character with sample output. Swift strings have a built-in initializer that lets you create strings by repeating a string a certain number of times. } block, print their total occurrences by the following awk command:. An extension to this problem can be to print all the repeating characters in the string. To use python on Windows, you can download and install python here. Note that len and indexing above work at the byte level. The intermediate array of strings shouldn't be much bigger than the long string itself (1MB). The TRANSLATE function converts every occurrence of a user-supplied character to another character. The repeat() method returns a new string with a specified number of copies of the string it was called on. ” For example: If input string is “analogy”, then program should return ‘n’ If input string is “easiest”, then program should return ‘a’ First approach: We will use LinkedHashMap to find first non repeating character in String. hello all i request you to give the solution for the following problem. This doesn't look difficult right :) however can u think of different ways to find the first non-repeated character in a string? I tried 3 different ways in C#. One with O(n^2) and 2 ways with O(n). There are 256 ASCII characters and their corresponding integer values are from 0 to 255. The parameters common to both functions are the number of times to repeat the character and the character itself. join(reversed(string)) d l r o W o l l e H Strip Python strings have the strip(), lstrip(), rstrip() methods for removing any character from both ends of a string. Learn What is the Top Cloud Service Provider - AWS, Azure, Google, IBM? Why Join Become a member Login. I don't use most of the other escape characters too often, but it's nice to know they're there when you need them. Given an integer, , find and print the number of letter a's in the first letters of Lilah's infinite string. Here we will use the python programming language to make a game of hangman, starting from scratch, working on a Macintosh. Converting a String to different Cases - Upper Case, Lower Case, Toggle Case, Camel Case and Sentence Case In this article, we will see how to convert a given String to different cases using simple looping and methods of the String class and the Character class. This is not an efficient way as this algorithm creats a lot of extra strings. NET Forums on Bytes. Add code to LRS. I really hate python for this, because this is very weird usage of multiplication sign (*). This tutorial will cover how to use regular expressions to explore the power of the 'grep' command. For example: "c string tutorial". At their simplest, these functions help you search and replace a given character. 1 Answers are available for this question. Here's pseudocode for it:. see-programming is a popular blog that provides information on C programming basics, data structure, advanced unix programming, network programming, basic linux commands, interview question for freshers, video tutorials and essential softwares for students. The parameters common to both functions are the number of times to repeat the character and the character itself. In the first example we first split the string using the empty string as separator. For example, for the string codevscolor, it will print d as it is the first non-repeating character. If the multiplier is set to 0, the function will return an empty string. If you’re working with potentially multi-byte characters you’ll want to use encoding-aware operations. Otherwise it returns false (0). The program outputs. String arrays provide a set of functions for working with text as data. To use python on Windows, you can download and install python here. This article presents a simple Java program to find duplicate characters in a String. In this case, it separates the characters from the text and makes each character as a key of the dictionary, and the character count is the value of those keys. This produces an aligned two-column table of names and phone numbers, as shown here:. Run a loop from start to end character of the given string str. The user will enter the string and the Java program will find the count of characters. In string processing, we might often end up with a string that has white characters at the beginning or at the end of a string. Converting a String to different Cases - Upper Case, Lower Case, Toggle Case, Camel Case and Sentence Case In this article, we will see how to convert a given String to different cases using simple looping and methods of the String class and the Character class. Replacing Characters in a String: replace() method creates a new string with the replaced characters. You can put almost any type of characters within double qu. String; String to list of single character strings; Repeat a String a number of times; Multiline Strings / Heredocs; Lowercase all characters in a string; Get the first character in a string; Test if a string ends with another string; Uppercase all characters in a string; String concatenation; String interpolation; Atom to string; Join a list. To use it, just provide the string to repeat and a count as its two parameters, like this: let str = String(repeating: "a", count: 5) That will set str to "aaaaa". You must first build the character array first, then make a new String from the character array. String Pattern-Matching. string = "Hello World" >>> print ' '. If the character is an alphabet, add it to the resultant string. When it is given a string that is checked with a char that is not in the string, it returns the lengths of string rather than -1. Learn more about repmat, concatenate, char, repeat, histogram. The essential logic in removing duplicate characters is to check all the. C program to Toggle Case of all Characters in a String using For Loop. I need to extract just the last digit of each string into a new variable. C Program To Find The Number Of Occurrences Of a Character In a String:. For example, consider the following function, f. As such it has it is own header library called string. The format string can also contain "percent specifiers", which match various things. StringStartsWithEndsWith - Check which characters/substrings a given string starts or ends with. About String Repeat. Let us consider the task:. Java Program to find duplicate Characters in a String By Chaitanya Singh | Filed Under: Java Examples This program would find out the duplicate characters in a String and would display the count of them. num-str is implicitly defined as USAGE DISPLAY which means its contents will be stored as characters. In this post we will be looking at printing all the repeating characters in the string. Repeating a std::string n times. A string is actually one-dimensional array of characters in C language. String Functions in AX 2012 returns 1 if the second string executed first; print Builds a string from only the characters in the first input string that are. multiplier has to be greater than or equal to 0. Basic PowerShell. Because of precedence by order the expression must place the string first. Next, it will find the maximum occurring character (most repeated character) inside a string. This book is directed mainly towards beginning programmers, although it might also be useful for experienced programmers who want to learn more about Java. Therefore, printf thinks the string is done! You must tell printf to look for multibyte characters by adding the l: %ls. This C Program Deletes All Repeated Words in String. The SAS character functions are essential to this. A special character is nothing but characters like ! #, % etc. This article is talking about repeating a character in a cell. , concatenate the respective numbers of copies of the strings). Check Case Of A Character Example Java Program; String Reverse Example Java Program; Trim A String Example Java Program; Find all Substrings of a given string Example Java Program; Repetitions In String Example Java Program; First Repeated Character Example Java Program; String Buffer Example Java Program; String Builder. I really hate python for this, because this is very weird usage of multiplication sign (*). To use python on Windows, you can download and install python here. Both methods will degrade with longer strings, particularly those with more duplicated characters. Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn't provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments. In this Blog I am trying to remove the duplicates characters. choice function might pick the same. A string array is a container for pieces of text. Section 2: Extracting substrings. Previous: Write a Python program to print all permutations with given repetition number of characters of a given string. To count the occurrence of character or to find frequency of character in a string in python, you have to ask from user to enter a string and then ask to enter a character to count total occurrence of that character in the given string and finally print the result on the output screen as shown in the program given below. Whole String will be displayed as output except given Character. After having exited from the group, the engine notices the plus. To find the duplicate character from the string, we count the occurrence of each character in the string. crstnbr November 7, 2019, 5:57am #24. Starting from numpy 1. C Program To Find The Number Of Occurrences Of a Character In a String:. String; String to list of single character strings; Repeat a String a number of times; Multiline Strings / Heredocs; Lowercase all characters in a string; Get the first character in a string; Test if a string ends with another string; Uppercase all characters in a string; String concatenation; String interpolation; Atom to string; Join a list. C program to print number of characters as per the count. Count and print number of repeated character occurrences in a String in Java April 4, 2017 SJ File Handling 0 In this article, we will count and print number of repeated character occurrences in a String i. For example, if s is the string all right , the function returns the new string all right all right all right. upper converts to upper case). I'm working a problem that returns a string containing the character in str if the length of str is odd, or the two. Suppose you didn't know beforehand which characters were duplicates - this code would not find them. For example , given a string "ooo" , our function should print Output : print six times "ooo". The repeat() method returns a new string with a specified number of copies of the string it was called on. This string is sorted so we can use a regular expression to match the repeated characters. The code runs and asks for an integer but then always only prints the string once. The problem stated that a given string has to be cut in such a fashion that the remaining characters in the string, say a and b have same character count. We used the print() function to output a line of text. For functions that operate on string positions, the first position is numbered 1. To differentiate between matching a regular character and something else, the character is immediately preceded by a backslash. A string is an list (or string) of characters stored contiguously with a marker to indicate the end of the string. LocalPlayber, game:GetService("RunService"). Write a program to find two lines with max characters in descending order. Each case begins with a single integer N denoting the length of string. Because of precedence by order the expression must place the string first. The character that makes up the string is the first character in the Character argument, and it is duplicated Number number of times. Write a c program to print the string from given character. If the period is specified without an explicit value for precision, 0 is assumed. This produces an aligned two-column table of names and phone numbers, as shown here:. Used to match the pattern in the string (not necessarily at the first character of the string), starting at the beginning of the string or, if the method was previously called and succeeded, at the first character not matched by the previous match. Count and print number of repeated word occurrences in a String in Java ; Count and print number of repeated character occurrences in a String in Java ; try with resources in Java 1. These are often used to create meaningful and readable programs. I imagine it is not too difficult to count the number of characters in the name string, but then how do I then repeat the "-" character by that number of counted characters? Edited by Scott W. In this article, we will discuss, different ways to print first non repeated character from string in C# 1: Complexity: O(n^2). The fact that each character in a Python string has a corresponding index number allows us to access and manipulate strings in the same ways we can with other sequential data types. The reason is that wide characters are two bytes, and for simple ASCII characters like W, the second byte is 0. Loop Through Each Character in a String The following is an example of looping through a string using a For…Next Loop, and returning each character in a msgbox. In C programming, array of characters is called a string. Python Counter| Find all duplicate characters in string Given a string, find all the duplicate characters which are similar to each others. C program to print alternate characters in a string Write a C program to print alternate characters in a string. Placing a number first causes the parser to try an dconvert the string into a number first. Visual Basic. The argument is interpreted as a long int or unsigned long int for integer specifiers (i, d, o, u, x and X), and as a wide character or wide character string for specifiers c and s. Characters That Must Be Escaped The dollar sign "$" and backtick "`" characters must be escaped with the backtick PowerShell escape character if they appear in strings quoted with double quotes. Print Reverse of a string (Recursion) Divide a string in N equal parts The smallest window in a string containing all characters of another string Reverse words in a given string Given a string find its first non-repeating character A Program to check if strings are rotations of each other or not Print all duplicates in the input string Print. The phrase shown previously loops through each character contained in string1. For example, if the string and , the substring we consider is , the first characters of her infinite string. repeat(String, int) or Merth's solution. Selecting a slice is similar to selecting a character: >>> s = 'Monty Python' >>> print s[0:5] Monty >>> print s[6:13] Python. This is a combination of digits, ascii_letters, punctuation, and whitespace. Converts a slice of bytes to a string, including invalid characters. An escape character is a backslash \ followed by the character you want to insert. Unlike an ordinary class:. Longest Repeated Substring (#153) This week's Ruby Quiz is to write a script that finds the longest repeated substring in a given text. Wrie a program to find out duplicate characters in a string. startsWith() Determines whether a string begins with the characters of another string. The class template basic_string stores and manipulates sequences of char-like objects, which are non-array objects of trivial standard-layout type. Placing a number first causes the parser to try an dconvert the string into a number first. println Convert the array to a List and then convert to String: 38. h that contains built-in functions for performing operations on these specific array types. Re: VBA: Remove last character from a string Yeah, but depending upon what the OP is trying to accomplish, there may be a better way than using VBA. String repeat - Strings can be multiplied (aka duplicated) using the multiplication operator. Count occurrences of a single or multiple characters in string and find their index positions Java : How to update the value of an existing key in HashMap | put() vs replace() How to remove Substrings from a String in C++. If found, this is the index of the. Write python code to print the repeated characters. C Program to Find the Frequency of Characters in a String This program asks user to enter a string and a character and checks how many times the character is repeated in the string. how to print, say 50 blank spaces, or say 20 blank spaces ? std::cout << std::string(50, ' '); std::cout << std::string(20, ' '); I wanted use such blank spaces that can be output in a program at predetermined places when printing with "cout". The program uses case insensitive comparison (For example, program assumes words CAT, cat and Cat etc. 5000 one and later copied by ksh93 and bash) - Stéphane Chazelas Mar 6 '15 at 21:13 yes it works, but uses a lot of resources for larger repeat, follow the suggestions by Stéphane Chazelas - Skaperen Mar 7 '15 at 13:51. Remove a substring using string substitution. The characters are indexed 0 based, from 0 to the length of the string-1. Having -1 return in this case is desired because it tells the user that the char did not appear anywhere in the index, since the index needs to be >= 0. If chars is omitted or None, whitespace characters are removed. (Not the first repeated character, found here. Most programming languages are going to have an "index of" type of function. using a while loop 2. Right String: Extract characters from the end of a string. 2 Alternately Special Characters On the other hand we have characters that normally print as you would expect, but when you add. The static String. If found, this is the index of the first non repeating character in the string. " For example: If input string is "analogy", then program should return 'n' If input string is "easiest", then program should return 'a' First approach: We will use LinkedHashMap to find first non repeating character in String. Now using for loop, for(int i=1 ; i<=n ; i++) { System. Reverse A String In Java - Here, we have discussed the various methods to reverse a string using java. I have a text file where I need to find the string = ST*850* This string is repetaed several times in the file, so I need to know how many times it appears in the file, this is the text files: pre { o | The UNIX and Linux Forums. Write a Python program to print all permutations with given repetition number of characters of a given string. Line 6: list_of_chars = list(my_clean. This java example program also expain the concepts for Basic Programs. Print indexes of a character where particular characters of a string exists in C programming language, this is a string program for practice, here we will read a string and print the character's indexes. The "Result" column tells what the contents of registers will hold after the syscall. To understand this example, you should have the knowledge of following C programming topics:. Python Counter| Find all duplicate characters in string Given a string, find all the duplicate characters which are similar to each others. Returns a string consisting of a supplied text string, repeated a specified number of times TEXTJOIN Joins together two or more text strings, separated by a delimiter (New in Excel 2019). Having -1 return in this case is desired because it tells the user that the char did not appear anywhere in the index, since the index needs to be >= 0. The Unicode Standard defines a surrogate pair as a coded character representation for a single abstract character that consists of a sequence of two code units. Store character in the reserved memory string for later print out Repeat for from EE 2310 at University of Texas, Dallas. Write a program to read in an N-by-N matrix of real numbers and print true if the matrix is doubly stochastic, and false otherwise. ; Repeat latest f, t, F or T [count] times. MsgBox Replace(String(Number, "X"), "X", CharsToRepeat) Note that the "X" character I used can actually be any character you want it is simply a temporary place keeper for the String function to produce multiple copies of then all for those repeated characters get replaced with the actual characters you want repeated. Cheatsheet Clojure 1. Similar to this example, we can also split a string by any other character. > hello there hello there > # don't print this > print this! print this! > done Done! All the lines are printed except the one that starts with the hash sign because when the continue is executed, it ends the current iteration and jumps back to the while statement to start the next iteration, thus skipping the print statement. 5729,how to print the duplicate letters in a string? tutorial, question, answer, example, Java, JavaScript, SQL, C, Android, Interview, Quiz, ajax, html. Well, String class in Java provides several methods to replace characters, CharSequence and substring from a String in Java. Hi: For some SAS functions, the former maximum length of 200 was assumed to be the length of a character string returned by the function. Count the Number of Characters (or Bytes or Width) Description. The Unicode Standard defines a surrogate pair as a coded character representation for a single abstract character that consists of a sequence of two code units. C Program to find First Occurrence of a Character in a String Example 1. Check Case Of A Character Example Java Program; String Reverse Example Java Program; Trim A String Example Java Program; Find all Substrings of a given string Example Java Program; Repetitions In String Example Java Program; First Repeated Character Example Java Program; String Buffer Example Java Program; String Builder. Since we want to count each character, we will have to redefine the FS to nothing(FS="") to split each character in separate line and save it into an array and at the end insideEND{. Use a quotation mark (") to begin a string. No, you can't do this in 'C' as far as I think. Program to find the no. ToString(); } To repeat a character, new String('\t', count) is your best bet. If you are unsure if a character has special meaning, such as '@', you can put a slash in front of it, @, to make. Accessing Values in Strings. The SendKeys Method sends one or more keystrokes to the active window (as if typed on the keyboard). So let’s look at an example to understand it better. charAt(i)]++; } /* The method returns index of first. The argument is interpreted as a long int or unsigned long int for integer specifiers (i, d, o, u, x and X), and as a wide character or wide character string for specifiers c and s. Reverse a string using recursion in c 12. Write a program to find top two maximum numbers in a array. In the first example we first split the string using the empty string as separator. - [count] lines upward, on the first non-blank character (linewise). C Program to Check whether the Given String is a Palindrome - Palindrome is a string, which when read in both forward and backward way is same. startsWith() Determines whether a string begins with the characters of another string. In the above string, the substring bdf is the longest sequence which has been repeated twice. Having -1 return in this case is desired because it tells the user that the char did not appear anywhere in the index, since the index needs to be >= 0. You can call replace method on the String, where you want to replace characters and it will return a result where characters are replaced. Given a string of characters. echo is just the standard echo service we have seen in class. read the text file and print the content character by character. The second one will print False, as the string certainly does not end with "asdfasdfasdf". This function returns a String made up of repeated characters. If Index is greater than the length of S, Copy returns a zero-length string ("") or an empty array. Continue reading C program to count frequency of each character in a string → Learn C programming, Data Structures tutorials, exercises, examples, programs, hacks, tips and tricks online. In this tutorial we have accepted one string from the user and character to be deleted from the user. The while loop will be terminated because of two conditions i. If the multiplier is set to 0, the function will return an empty string. To understand this example, you should have the knowledge of following C programming topics:. Because of precedence by order the expression must place the string first. Python indexes the characters in a string, starting from 0, so for instance, the characters in the string 'computer' have indices:. Learn more about repmat, concatenate, char, repeat, histogram. How it comes to (n * n!) From the above stack trace picture of a program you can see, for printing permutation of string "ABC" i. write a Java Program to find Max occurred character in a string How to print duplicate characters from string in count number of repeated characters in a string. rest represents the number of characters left after finding out number of s. We create a string by wrapping a sequence of characters in quotation marks. how to print, say 50 blank spaces, or say 20 blank spaces ? std::cout << std::string(50, ' '); std::cout << std::string(20, ' '); I wanted use such blank spaces that can be output in a program at predetermined places when printing with "cout". lower('Python'). using a while loop 2. Wrie a program to find out duplicate characters in a string. Attempt to put every newly read character into a Set. Even a single character is considered a string. When, compiler encounter strings, it appends a null character /0 at the end of string. The String class represents character strings. The program outputs. Create an array of bits, one per possible character. Lesson 7 has three parts A, B, C which can be completed in any order. StringLength - Get the length of a string. A character array is a sequence of characters, just as a numeric array is a sequence of numbers. Loop through each character in a string in PHP by Hugh Lashbrooke Posted on 8 Mar 2012 16 Jul 2015 The other day I was working on a project that required me to extract a numeric ID from the current page's URL. #!/bin/bash # substring-extraction. See strings, bytes, runes and characters in Go for more information. This doesn't look difficult right :) however can u think of different ways to find the first non-repeated character in a string? I tried 3 different ways in C#. I have an AWK command to parse each string between from File1 into its own file, but it only labels the files temp with numbers: awk -v RS="" '{ print $0 > "temp" NR }' File1. Back to top A better solution (List. To print ASCII values in very simple, we have to just access one by one character from the string (by running a loop from 0 to NULL character) and prints the value using %02X format specifier. So: You could only scan the result string instead of using a separate table. How to remove whitespaces in strings of Python? In Python, the leading and trailing spaces can be trimmed by using the built-in functions as described below: Python strip method – removes spaces from left and right of the string and returns the copy of the string. For example, the longest substring without repeating letters for "abcabcbb" is "abc", which the length is 3. MsgBox Replace(String(Number, "X"), "X", CharsToRepeat) Note that the "X" character I used can actually be any character you want it is simply a temporary place keeper for the String function to produce multiple copies of then all for those repeated characters get replaced with the actual characters you want repeated. Write a program to read in an N-by-N matrix of real numbers and print true if the matrix is doubly stochastic, and false otherwise. See previous problems "Print character repeating maximum numberr of times in a string", "Find first non-repeating character in the string", "Find all repeating characters in a string". %02X prints the 2 bytes 0 padded Hexadecimal value of any character. The following example also increments a numerical string, although it does not apear to. Find the first non repeating character in a given string; Find the first repeating character in a given string; Print maximum occurring character in a String; Longest contiguous character in a given String - O(N) Solution; Find duplicates Characters in the given String. Count and print number of repeated word occurrences in a String in Java April 3, 2017 SJ File Handling 0 In this article, we will count and print number of repeated word occurrences in a String i. Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. How to find duplicate words in Java String? [Solution] Problem : Write a Java program to print the duplicate words from a given statement e. The phrase shown previously loops through each character contained in string1. This doesn't look difficult right :) however can u think of different ways to find the first non-repeated character in a string? I tried 3 different ways in C#. For each character ch in the string, remove all next occurrences of ch. Write a program to convert string to number without using Integer. C Program to Find the Frequency of Characters in a String This program asks user to enter a string and a character and checks how many times the character is repeated in the string. If no string is specified via the =~ or !~ operator, the $_ variable is searched and modified. A Java String contains an immutable sequence of Unicode characters. sh String=23skidoo1 # 012345678 Bash # 123456789 awk # Note different string indexing system: # Bash numbers first character of string as 0. I have an AWK command to parse each string between from File1 into its own file, but it only labels the files temp with numbers: awk -v RS="" '{ print $0 > "temp" NR }' File1. 5000 one and later copied by ksh93 and bash) - Stéphane Chazelas Mar 6 '15 at 21:13 yes it works, but uses a lot of resources for larger repeat, follow the suggestions by Stéphane Chazelas - Skaperen Mar 7 '15 at 13:51. The sprint () (String Print) function lets you use a function as the first argument, and uses the function and the rest of the arguments to send information to a stream, returning the result as a string. What if characters are same but order is not? If the scenario is to check two strings equality even if the order of words or characters is different then you may first use the sort function and then compare both strings. The advantage of using gets function is that, it can read string containing white cpace characters but gets can only read one string at a time. Repeating a Capturing Group vs. This Java example shows how to capitalize first character of string or make first letter uppercase in Java using various approaches. Usage in Python. Once the basic R programming control structures are understood, users can use the R language as a powerful environment to perform complex custom analyses of almost any type of data. Your program will be passed some text on STDIN and is expected to print the longest repeated substring within that text to STDOUT. cmd Summary. Strings may contain the format characters you have discovered so far.